FMD is endemic parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. In May 2022 cases were confirmed in four Indonesian provinces. Australian animal health providers are on alert and the Australian Government is working to support Indonesia in a swift and effective response.
Above: Lesions on upper gum about 2-3 days old (source: CSIRO EAD Field Guide).
Above: FMD was confirmed in Indonesia in May 2022.
FMD is a highly contagious virus (family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus) that can infect all cloven-hoofed animals. There is no FMD in Australia and an outbreak would be very costly.
Pigs are regarded as important amplifying hosts for the disease because of their capacity to shed large quantities of virus in their breath, cattle are seen as indicator hosts because of their susceptibility to infection, and sheep and goats are considered silent hosts because infection can spread through flocks with limited clinical disease.
Drooling and vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, feet or teats are well-known clinical signs. Other signs include lameness, pyrexia, abortion, drop in milk production, and sudden death in young animals.
The incubation period for clinical signs is typically 2-5 days (range 1 to 14 days) and varies with virus strain, exposure dose, route of entry and animal species infected. The CSIRO EAD Field Guide describes the changing appearance of lesions in cattle and pigs age over 7 days, as well as providing contemporary information on epidemiology, sampling and differential diagnoses.
If you suspect FMD phone the Emergency Animal Disease Watch Hotline 1800 675 888. Early detection is critical to containment of this disease.
Above: Lesions about 4-5 days old (EAD Field Guide).
Above: Lesions about 8-10 days old (WA DPIRD).
Above: Fresh vesicles with blanched epithelium at the base of the snout (EAD Field Guide).
Above: Coronary band lesions on pig (EAD Field Guide).